- National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) launches campaign
to address stereotypes found in print and in other media
- NA activists at Dartmouth College continue to promote changes
in that school's Indians nickname. replaced
soon by Big Green
- University of Oklahoma retires its Little Red mascot
that had been traditional since 1940's
- Protests against Cleveland Indians baseball team - Chief
Wahoo - take place in Cleveland.
- Marquette University (MI) abandons its Willie
Wampum mascot. Prior to the 1994 season, the MU changed Warriors
to Golden Eagles.
- A petition by AI students at Stanford University results in
the school dropping Indian sports team
nickname and logos.
- Dickinson State (ND) changes from the Savages
to the Blue Hawks.
- Increasing efforts begun in the 1960's, First Nations students
at the University of North Dakota (UND) take steps to retire the school's Fighting
- Syracuse University (NY) did away with Saltine
- St Bonaventure, NY, retired it's
Brown Indians and Brown Squaws
sports team mascots.
- Southern Oregon University ends a tradition begun in 1950 when
its Red Raiders sports teams cease using
several depictions of Indian chiefs as
mascots and symbolic logos for sporting events
- The Michigan State Civil Rights commission issues a report on
nicknames, logos, and mascots depicting NA people in Michigan education
- Minnesota State Board of Education adopts a resolution stating
that "the use of mascots, emblems, or symbols depicting American Indian
culture or race (is) unacceptable." and encourages all districts to
immediately proceed to remove such mascots.
- Public schools in Wisconsin begin to change their American
Indian related sports team logos, mascots, and nicknames. As of 1998, 21 schools
- almost 1/3 - of the total using such icons, had changed.
- Siena College in NY drops Indians
- are now Saints.
- Saint Mary's college (MN) changes from Red
Men to the Cardinals.
- Charlene Teters, NA graduate student attending University of
Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, initiates efforts to eliminate that school's Chief
- Nebraska Commission on Indian Affairs requests 27 public
schools in that state to end their use of American Indian names and mascots.
- The National Education Associate (NEA) the largest educational
organization of its kind in the world, passes resolutions in 2 consecutive years
(91/92) denouncing the use of ethnic related sports team mascots, symbols, and
- Eastern Michigan University changes its Huron
nickname to Eagles.
- Advocates protest at the Minneapolis Metrodome where Superbowl
XXVI found the Buffalo Bills pitted aginst Washington
- Seven Native Americans filed a lawsuit against the Washington
Redskins football club and petitioned the U.S. Patent and Trademark
Office for cancellation of federal registrations for Redskins
and Redskinettes...and associated names of
the team in the nation's capital.
- Portland Oregonian announces it will no longer use the word "Redskins"
and several other American Indian related terms in print.
- Radio stations WASH and WTOP in Washington DC also adopt
- Simpson college, drops its Redmen
and Lady Reds to Storm.
- Despite a lawsuit and over 2000 signatures signed in protest,
Naperville Central High School (IL) switches its nickname from Redskins
to Redhawks. Grand Forks Central High School (ND) changes its sports teams'
nickname from Redskins to Knights.
- National Congress of American Indians issues a resolution
which "denounces the use of any American Indian name or artifice associated
with team mascots."
- Arvada High School, near Denver Col, drops its Redskins
sports team nickname
- The State of Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction issues
a directive "strongly urging" all Wisconsin schools using American
Indian related mascots to discontinue such uses.
- Enumclaw Junior High School (WA) dropped its "Chieftain"
- Hartwick College in Oneonta, New York, exchanged it's "Warriors"
nickname for "Hawks."
- As a show of appreciate for having changed its
"Indian" mascot, Park High school in Cottage Grove,
Minnesota, is awarded $10,000 by the Prairie Island Mdewakanton Sioux Community.
- Prior to the 1994-95 season Marquette University retired its
"Warriors" nickname in favor of
- St. John's, the largest Catholic university in America, drops
its "Redmen" nickname in favor of
- University of Tennessee at Chattanooga discontinues the use of
its "Chief Moccanooga"
mascot. The following year the team's "Moccasins"
nickname was shortened to "Mocs" in reference to Tennessee's state
bird, the Mockingbird.
- Miami University of Ohio (Oxford, OH) drops its "Redskins"
- The Toronto Bluejays triple-A farm team in Syracuse, NY, heeds
concerns expressed by advocates and changes its nickname from the "Chiefs"
to the "Skychiefs."
- Hull Western Christian school in Hull, Iowa, is honored by the
Sioux City Human Rights Commission for retiring the school's "Indians"
- In a process that began in 1995, Adams State University
(Alamosa, CO) changes its mascot from an "Indian"
to a "Grizzly."
- Newtown High School in Sandy Hook, Connecticut drops its "Indians"
nickname in favor of the "Nighthawks."
- The United Methodist Church takes an official stance
Concerning Demeaning Names to Native Americans as well as on other related
- Fremont High School in Sunnyvale, California, changed its
mascot from "Indians" to
- Students at Hortonville, Wisconsin, adopt a non-recognition
policy stating their school will not use cheers, names, etc., related to
"Indian" sports team tokens employed by opposing teams.
- Jay Rosenstein's documentary "In Whose Honor" is
aired nationally on the Public Broadcasting System TV show "Point of
View." Mr. Rosenstein's film highlights Charlene Teters' efforts to
eliminate the "Chief Illiniwek"
mascot used by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
- The Board of Education for the Los Angeles, California
consolidated school district moves to eliminate "Indian"
related mascots from four schools in its jurisdiction.
- The minor league Canton-Akron "Indians"
rename themselves the Akron "Aeros" and boost their merchandise sales
from $60,000 to $1.2 million, the largest merchandise income of any minor league
- Yakima College (Washington State) respects concerns expressed
by its American Indian community and elects to retire the institution's
- The Kansas Association for Native American Education (KANAE)
issues a resolution that "...calls for the elimination of use of American
Indian mascots and logos in all public and private schools in the State of
- The American Jewish Committee approves a statement on team
names which notes it "deplores and opposes the use of racial or ethnic
stereotypes in the names or titles of business, professional, sport or their
public entitles when the affected group has not chosen the name itself."
- Approximately 200 anti-"Indian"
mascot activists from around the country converge at the University of Illinois,
Champaign-Urbana for the first national Conference on the Elimination of Racist
- A federal judge upholds the Los Angles consolidated school
board's 1997 decision to eliminate several "Indian"
related mascots and nicknames from its district.
- Southern Nazarene University, a small Christian school in
Bethany, Oklahoma, retires its "Redskins"
nickname in favor of "Crimson Storm."
- New York State Education Department Commissioner directs his
staff to undertake a statewide review of public schools using American Indian
related sports team tokens.
- Despite personal hardships faced by a White Mountain
Apache student and his family, a bitter five year struggle at a public school in
Medford, Wisconsin ends victoriously when the school is compelled to drop its "Screaming
Indian with Mohawk haircut" logo.
- Oregon's Chemeketa Community College drops its
"Chiefs" nickname and selects "Storm" for its new
one. Since the 1970s, twenty high schools in Oregon have also changed
their "Indian" related nicknames
- National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Minority
Opportunities and Interests Committee concludes that "Indian mascots that
promote Indian caricatures and mimic ceremonial rites do not comply with the
NCAA's commitment to ethnic student welfare."
- Following a complaint made by the program manager for American
Indian Education, 10 public schools in Dallas, Texas, make plans to retire their
respective "Indian" mascots by the
end of the 1998-99 school year.
- Oklahoma City University, a college affiliated with the United
Methodist Church, decides to replace its "Chiefs"
nickname dating back to 1944.
- Morningside College of Sioux City, Iowa, changes its nickname
from the "Maroon Chiefs" to the
- The Great Lakes Inter-Tribal Council, a consortium of twelve
federally recognized Indian tribes, issues a resolution calling for the end
of "the use of depictions of and cultural references to American
Indians as mascots, logos, and team nicknames in Wisconsin public schools."
- Erwin High school in Asheville, NC is investigated for
discrimination by the United States Department of Justice because of its "Indian"
related nicknames and mascot.
- A panel in Utah decides that the word "Redskins"
is a derogatory term and forbids its use on motor vehicle license
- Citing educational concerns about misinterpretations of the
crayon color's name, Crayola announces plans to change "indian
red" to something less ambiguous.
- A landmark victory concludes a legal battle begun in 1992 as a
three-judge panel of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office rules that the term
"Redskins" is a term disparaging to Native Americans and
tends to bring them "into contempt or disrepute." The decision
has the potential to strip the Washington NFL team of trademark protections.
- Millard South High in Omaha, Nebraska, one of the largest
schools in the state, graciously decides to change its "Indians"
- Following the lead of its Champaign-Urbana branch, the
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) unanimously
approves a second mascot resolution.
- Detailing a number of important points and concerns, The
Nebraska Commission on Indian Affairs issues a mascot resolution.
- Appalled by the University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana's use
of a stereotypic "Indian" mascot
the prestigious Society for the Study of the Indigenous Languages of the
Americas offers a formal position on Illiniwek.
- Following almost ten years of controversy, a high school in
Milton, Wisconsin, retires its "Redmen"
- The U.S. Census Bureau adopts a policy on non-use of Athletic
Teams with American Indian or Alaska Native Names in Promoting Census 2000
- In an poll conducted by the National Spectator's Association,
60% of respondents indicate they want the "Wahoo"
logo of the Cleveland Major League Baseball team to be changed.
- Research conducted by a college professor debunks the myth
that the Cleveland MLB team was named in "honor" of Louis Sockalexis,
one of the first Native Americans to play for that club.
- Rickards High in Florida wisely decides to retire its 40 year
old "Redskins" nickname.
- Oklahoma City University finalizes plans to change its "Chiefs"
nickname to "Stars."
- ESPN airs a special program on Native Americans in sports and
which contains a segment on the mascot issue. Follow-up coverage included
an insightful online chat session with leading advocate, Suzan Shown Harjo.
- The Society of Indian Psychologists of the Americans issues a
position statement that receives recognition in a publication of the
prestigious American Psychological Association.
- The main Cleveland area public library enacts a dress code
that prohibits its 700 employees from wearing garments bearing "Wahoo"
- Ten schools in the Dallas, Texas, area follow through on a
1997 decision to change their "Indian"
sports team tokens.
- The Hutchinson Human Relations Commission, Hutchinson Kansas,
issues a resolution
- Hendrix College in Arkansas retires its stereotypic "Indian-head"
logo while retaining its "Warriors" nickname.
- Seattle University, a Jesuit school in Washington State,
completes its transition from the "Chieftains"
to the "Redhawks."
- Frontier High School in Deerfield, Massachusetts,
changes it "Redskins" nickname.
- Niles West High School in Skokie, Illinois, retires its "Indians"
- Onteora High School in Boiceville, New York, retires its "Indians"
nickname and other related practices only to see reactionary school
board candidates win seats and reinstate the school's "Indian"
sports team token. The district is believed to be the first in the country
to repeal an anti-discrimination policy in order to keep its racial icon.
- Hiawatha, Kansas, retires the "Redskins"
nickname from all schools in its district.
- The Canajoharie school district in New York state retires use
of the "Redskins" nickname.
- Saranac Lake, New York, retires the "Redskins"
nickname from all schools in its district.
- After failing to take action on an appeal that was filed five
years earlier, the New York State Education Department calls for the retirement
of institutionalized "Indian" sports
team nicknames, mascots, and logos from its public schools.
- The school board for Penfield High School, near Rochester, NY,
displays a healing gesture and votes 7-0 to retire the school's "Chiefs"
sports team token.
- Sagamore Hills Elementary school in Atlanta, Georgia, decides
it will no longer use a "Chiefs"
mascot and prepares to consider alternative ways of showing support for that
city's MLB team besides school-wide "tomahawk
chops" and war chants.
- By the unanimous vote of its school board, Afton, NY, public
schools exhibits good judgment and retires its "Indians"
- In an action that removes all doubt about the seriousness of
concerns surrounding the use of "Indian"
sports team tokens, The United States Commission on Civil Rights issues a
position statement calling for educational institutions to avoid use of such
ethnic nicknames and mascots.
- Parsipanny High School in Parsipanny, NJ, exhibits courageous
vision by retiring its racial slur "Redskins"
- Following its President's recommendation, along with support
from coaches and student government leaders, Southwestern College in Chula
Vista, California, wisely elects to change its "Apaches"
mascot to "Jaguars."
- The Bell-Chatham board of education in Illinois votes in favor
of retiring the "Redskins"and "Braves"
nicknames used by its schools.
- Illinois Valley Community College in Oglesby, Illinois,
retires its "Apaches" nickname and
provides a good example that the University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana and
other institutions using "Indian"
sports team tokens would do well to follow.
- Advocates from across the country convene at the Northern
Plains Conference on American Indian Team Names and Logos held at the University
of North Dakota, Grand Forks.
- The Minnesota Indian Education Association adopts a resolution
in opposition to the University of North Dakota's use of the "Fighting
Sioux" name and logo.
- Irondequoit High School, near Rochester, New York, makes plans
to replace its "Indians" nickname.
- The Modern Language Association passes a resolution on mascots
and symbols. The MLA includes over 30,000 members in the fields of English,
foreign languages, and linguistics.
- The Quinnipiac University Board of Trustees Votes To
Discontinue Use of 'The Braves' Nickname
- Cumberland College in Williamsburg, Kentucky, changes it's
"Indian" themed mascot to
- Stating the district will not use any mascot that reflects any
identifiable group by age, race, color, gender, religion or national origin, the
District 87 school board voted to retire Bloomington High School's (Illinois)
American Indian mascot. BHS kept the Purple Raiders nickname.
- The Iowa Civil Rights Commission passed a Resolution Opposing
the Use of Native American Images, Mascots, and Team Names in Iowa
- The Durham (North Carolina) franchise in the summer collegiate
Coastal Plain League changed its nickname from Braves
to Americans. The Minnesota State Colleges and Universities Board adopted a
resolution against discriminatory logos, names, mascots and nicknames
- West High School in Oshkosh Wisconsin retired its
"Indian" themed mascot.
- Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts decided its sports teams
will no longer be known as Mohawks.
- New Hampshire State Board of Education unanimously approved a
resolution calling for local school districts to stop using American Indian
- Southeastern Community College, in West Burlington, Iowa,
makes a smart and painless change by dropping the "Indian"
association to its "Blackhawk" nickname and changing it to
reflect a bird of prey, the "Black Hawks."
- Martin Methodist College in Pulaski, Tennessee, changed its
sports team nickname from "Indians"
- Joining the ranks of other newspapers that have also adopted
similar guidelines the Nebraska Journal Star newspaper amends its style and,
along with other related changes, will no long print the "Redskins"
- The Telegraph-Forum, a newspaper in Central Ohio, discontinues
its use of "Chief Wahoo."
- The Michigan State Board of Education passes a resolution that
"supports and strongly recommends the elimination of American Indian
mascots, nicknames, logos, fight songs, insignias, antics, and team descriptors
by all Michigan schools."
- The Peoria Chiefs, a minor
league affiliate of the Chicago Cubs, changes it logo from an American Indian to
a Dalmatian fire chief.