the extinction of languages 

(Information researched by Anna Gradomska, compiled in 2003.  Thank you!)


I've been gathering some facts about languages and dialects in the world:
Approximately
50 languages are spoken only by one person. 90% of languages in the world are used by less than 100 000 people. 357 languages are spoken by less than 50 users.  When the language dies,  a piece of culture heritage can't be restored.

Examples of languages already dead:

in California and Oregon,  Wailaki, Nongatl, Lassik, Sinkyone, Umpqua,Coquille, Appelegate, Cheto

Ubykh  (Turkey) - died with Tevfik Esendead in 1992

One of Tasmanian dialects (in 1905 died Fanny Cochrane Smyth who was the last user of this language)

Eyak (Alaska) - there is only 1 user, Marie Smith-Johnes. In the another classification the language is nearly extinct.

Dalmatian (Albania, Yugoslavia) - in 1898 died Tuone Udain, the last speaker

Ainu (Hokkaido, Japan)

Polabian (Poland)

 

Among the 417 languages classified as nearly extinct

Kashubian and (Poland)

- Celtic /Irish Gaelic/ (only 1% of Irish speak this language on a daily basis)

 Welsh - 500 000 speakers

Cornish (in 1777 died, Dolly Pentreath, the last speaker of Cornish. One  hundred years later the language was started being restored - 2 000 speakers today

Breton, Provençal, Gascon, Frisian

Basque - (Spain, France)

g/wi and Khoisan (Africa)

Tupi-guarani - Paraguay (50 000)

Upper Sorbian and Lower Sorbian (Germany)

 

The list of languages classified as nearly extinct in USA

 (from http://www.ethnologue.com/)

ABNAKI, EASTERN 1 speaker
ACHUMAWI. 10 speakers
AHTENA. 80 speakers
APACHE, KIOWA. 18 speakers
APACHE, LIPAN. 2 or 3 speakers
ATSUGEWI. 4 speakers
CAHUILLA. 35 speakers
CATAWBA. The last fluent speaker died in 1996
CHEHALIS, LOWER. 5 or fewer speakers
CHEHALIS, UPPER. 2 or fewer speakers
CHETCO. 5 speakers or fewer
CHINOOK. 12 speakers of Kiksht dialect
CHINOOK WAWA. 17 speakers in USA
CLALLAM. 5 speakers
COEUR D'ALENE. 5 or fewer speakers
COOS. 1 or 2 speakers
COWLITZ. Possibly 2 speakers remaining from a population of about 200
CUPENO. 9 speakers
EYAK. 1 speaker
GROS VENTRE. 10 or fewer speakers
HAIDA, NORTHERN 15 fluent speakers
HAN. 7 or 8 speakers in Alaska
HOLIKACHUK. 12 speakers
HUPA. 8 fluent speakers

KALAPUYA. 1 or 2 speakers
KALISPEL-PEND D'OREI
KANSA. 19 speakers
KASHAYA  100 or fewer speakers
KATO. 10 speakers
KAWAIISU. 10 or fewer speakers
KLAMATH-MODOC. 1 speaker
KOYUKON. 300 speakers
LUSHOOTSEED. 60 speakers
MAIDU, NORTHEAST. 10 or fewer

MAIDU, NORTHWEST. 10 to 100
MANDAN. 6 fluent speakers
MENOMINI. 39 first language speakers, 26 second language speakers, 15 others ages 30 to 50, who have learned Menominee in order to teach it, and 50 ages 20 and above who have learned it to understand it
MIWOK, CENTRAL SIERRA. 5 or fewer
MIWOK, COAST. 1
MIWOK, LAKE. 8
MIWOK, NORTHERN SIERRA. 10 or fewer.
MIWOK, PLA
INS. 1
MIWOK, SOUTHERN SIERRA. 10 or fewer.
MONO. 20 speakers
NISENAN. 12
OSAGE. 5 fluent speakers
PANAMINT. 20 speakers
PAWNEE. 4 speakers

POMO, CENTRAL. 40 or fewer
POMO, NORTHEASTERN. 1
POMO, SOUTHEASTERN. 10 or fewer
POMO, SOUTHERN. 40 or fewer
QUAPAW. 34 speakers
QUILEUTE. 10 speakers
QUINAULT. 6 or fewer speakers
SALISH, SOUTHERN PUGET SOUND.
SERRANO. 1 speaker
SHASTA. 12 speakers
SNOHOMISH. 10 or fewer speakers
TANAINA. 75 or fewer speakers
TOLOWA. 5 speakers
TÜBATULABAL. 6 speakers
TUSCARORA. 10 or fewer speakers in USA
TUTUTNI. 10 speakers or fewer
UNAMI. 5 or fewer speakers
WAPPO. 1 speaker
WASCO-WISHRAM. 69 speakers including 7 monolinguals
WASHO. 10 or fewer speakers
WICHITA. 10 or fewer speakers
WINTU. 10 speakers
YOKUTS. 78 speakers of Northern Foothill Yokuts (1990 census), out of
a possible total Yokuts population of 500
YUCHI. 12 to 19 fluent speakers
YUKI. 6 speakers
YUROK. 10 or fewer speakers

Information researched by Anna Gradomska. Thank you!
space11@wp.pl

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